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pdf File 2009 Geologic Time Scale
From the Geological Society of America
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105.84 Kb 02/23/10
pdf File Atmosphere History
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45.56 Kb 06/12/08
htm File Earth in the Past Animations
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htm File Earth's History - SCOTESE
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gif File Evolution GIF
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doc File EvolutionaryTimeline.doc
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pdf File Footprint Puzzle
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23.50 Kb 07/22/07
pdf File Fossil Pics (.pdf ) 28MB
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flv File Geologic Time in One Minute (.flv)
You can download the free VLC player to view this!
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3.95 MB 03/05/09
pdf File Human Migration Map
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88.35 Kb 02/03/12
doc File HumanTimeline.doc
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33.00 Kb 11/17/08
png File Mammals Cladogram
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pptx File Relative Dating Pics
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5.17 MB 02/15/12
pptx File ROCK CORRELATION (.pptx)
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7.50 MB 02/24/12
swf File The History of the Earth!!!
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791.56 Kb 05/30/08
html File Timeline: Human Evolution

Timeline: Human Evolution

  • 12:15 04 September 2006
  • news service
  • John Pickrell
55 million years ago (MYA)

• First primitive primates evolve

8 - 6 MYA

• First gorillas evolve. Later, chimp and human lineages diverge

5.8 MYA

Orrorin tugenensis, oldest human ancestor thought to have walked on two legs

5.5 MYA

• Ardipithecus, early "proto-human" shares traits with chimps and gorillas, and is forest-dwelling


• Australopithecines appear. They have brains no larger than a chimpanzee's - with a volume around 400 - 500 cm3 -, but walk upright on two legs. First human ancestors to live on the savannah

3.2 MYA

• Lucy, famous specimen of Australopithecus afarensis, lives near what is now Hadar, Ethiopia

2.7 MYA

• Paranthropus, lives in woods and grasslands, has massive jaws for chewing on roots and vegetation. Becomes extinct 1.2 MYA

2.5 MYA

Homo habilis appears. Its face protrudes less than earlier hominids, but still retains many ape features. Has a brain volume of around 600 cm3

• Hominids start to use stone tools regularly, created by splitting pebbles - this starts Oldowan tradition of toolmaking, which last a million years

• Some hominids develop meat-rich diets as scavengers, the extra energy may have favoured the evolution of larger brains


• Evidence of Homo ergaster, with a brain volume of up to 850 cm3, in Africa

1.8 - 1.5 MYA

Homo erectus is found in Asia. First true hunter-gatherer ancestor, and also first to have migrated out of Africa in large numbers. It attains a brain size of around 1000 cm3

1.6 MYA

• Possible first sporadic use of fire suggested by discoloured sediments in Koobi Fora, Kenya. More convincing evidence of charred wood and stone tools is found in Israel and dated to 780,000 years ago

• More complex Acheulean stone tools start to be produced and are the dominant technology until 100,000 years ago

600,000 YA

Homo Heidelbergensis lives in Africa and Europe. Similar brain capacity to modern humans

500,000 YA

• Earliest evidence of purpose-built shelters - wooden huts - are known from sites near Chichibu, Japan

400,000 YA

• Early humans begin to hunt with spears

325,000 YA

• Oldest surviving early human footprints are left by three people who scrambled down the slopes of a volcano in Italy

280,000 YA

• First complex stone blades and grinding stones

230,000 YA

• Neanderthals appear and are found across Europe, from Britain in the west to Iran in the east, until they become extinct with the advent of modern humans 28,000 years ago

195,000 YA

• Our own species Homo sapiens appears on the scene - and shortly after begins to migrate across Asia and Europe. Oldest modern human remains are two skulls found in Ethiopia that date to this period. Average human brain volume is 1350 cm3

170,000 YA

• Mitochondrial Eve, the direct ancestor to all living people today, may have been living in Africa

150,000 YA

• Humans possibly capable of speech. 100,000-year-old shell jewellery suggests that that people develop complex speech and symbolism

140,000 YA

• First evidence of long-distance trade

110,000 YA

• Earliest beads - made from ostrich eggshells - and jewellery

50,000 YA

• "Great leap forward": human culture starts to change much more rapidly than before; people begin burying their dead ritually; create clothes from animal hides; and develop complex hunting techniques, such as pit-traps.

• Colonisation of Australia by modern humans

33,000 YA

• Oldest cave art. Later, Stone Age artisans create the spectacular murals at Lascaux and Chauvet in France

Homo erectus dies out in Asia - replaced by modern man

18,000 YA

Homo Floresiensis, "Hobbit" people, found on the Indonesian island of Flores. They stand just over 1 metre tall, and have brains similar in size to chimpanzees, yet have advanced stone tools

12,000 YA

• Modern people reach the Americas

10,000 YA

• Agriculture develops and spread. First villages. Possible domestication of dogs

5,500 YA

• Stone Age ends and Bronze Age begins. Humans begin to smelt and work copper and tin, and use them in place of stone implements

5,000 YA

• Earliest known writing

4,000 to 3,500 BC

• The Sumerians of Mesopotamia develop the world's first civilisation

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jpg File Tree of Life
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284.84 Kb 02/13/08
pptx File Tree Of Life Slideshow
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101.57 Kb 02/15/12
html File TREE OF LIFE!!!
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pdf File 1. Earth's History Pics from Regents Exams
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3.31 MB 3/11/2005
pdf File 2. Earth's History Pics from Regents Exams
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2.11 MB 3/11/2005
pdf File 3. Earth's History Pics from Regents Exams
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2.40 MB 3/11/2005
pdf File 4,600,000,000 Years

Evolutionary Timeline


(Myr ago)
4600 Formation of the approximately homogeneous solid Earth by planetesimal accretion
4300 Melting of the Earth due to radioactive and gravitational heating which leads to its differentiated interior structure as well as outgassing of molecules such as water, methane, ammonia, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide
4300 Atmospheric water is photodissociated by ultraviolet light to give oxygen atoms which are incorporated into an ozone layer and hydrogen molecules which escape into space
4000 Bombardment of the Earth by planetesimals stops
3800 The Earth's crust solidifies--formation of the oldest rocks found on Earth
3800 Condensation of atmospheric water into oceans
3500-2800 Prokaryotic cell organisms develop
3500-2800 Beginning of photosynthesis by blue-green algae which releases oxygen molecules into the atmosphere and steadily works to strengthen the ozone layer and change the Earth's chemically reducing atmosphere into a chemically oxidizing one
2400 Rise in the concentration of oxygen molecules stops the deposition of uraninites (since they are soluble when combined with oxygen) and starts the deposition of banded iron formations
2000 The Oklo natural fission reactor in Gabon goes into operation
1600 The last reserves of reduced iron are used up by the increasing atmospheric oxygen--last banded iron formations
1500 Eukaryotic cell organisms develop
1500-600 Rise of multicellular organisms
580-545 Fossils of Ediacaran organisms are made
545 Cambrian explosion of hard-bodied organisms
528-526 Fossilization of the Chengjiang site
517-515 Fossilization of the Burgess Shale
500-450 Rise of the fish--first vertebrates
430 Waxy coated algae begin to live on land
420 Millipedes have evolved--first land animals
375 The Appalachian mountains are formed via a plate tectonic collision between North America, Africa, and Europe
375 Appearance of primitive sharks
350-300 Rise of the amphibians
350 Primitive insects have evolved
350 Primitive ferns evolve--first plants with roots
300-200 Rise of the reptiles
300 Winged insects have evolved
280 Beetles and weevils have evolved
250 Permian period mass extinction
230 Roaches and termites have evolved
225 Modern ferns have evolved
225 Bees have evolved
200 Pangaea starts to break apart
200 Primitive crocodiles have evolved
200 Appearance of mammals
145 Archaeopteryx walks the Earth
136 Primitive kangaroos have evolved
100 Primitive cranes have evolved
90 Modern sharks have evolved
65 K-T Boundary--extinction of the dinosaurs and beginning of the reign of mammals
60 Rats, mice, and squirrels have evolved
60 Herons and storks have evolved
55 Rabbits and hares have evolved
50 Primitive monkeys have evolved
28 Koalas have evolved
20 Parrots and pigeons have evolved
20-12 The chimpanzee and hominid lines evolve
10-4 Ramapithecus exist
4 Development of hominid bipedalism
4-1 Australopithecus exist
3.5 The Australopithecus Lucy walks the Earth
2 Widespread use of stone tools
2-0.01 Most recent ice age
1.6-0.2 Homo erectus exist
1-0.5 Homo erectus tames fire
0.3 Geminga supernova explosion at a distance of roughly 60 pc--roughly as bright as the Moon
0.2-0.03 Homo sapiens neanderthalensis exist
0.05-0 Homo sapiens sapiens exist
0.04-0.012 Homo sapiens sapiens enter Australia from southeastern Asia and North America from northeastern Asia
0.025-0.01 Most recent glaciation--an ice sheet covers much of the northern United States
0.02 Homo sapiens sapiens paint the Altamira Cave
0.012 Homo sapiens sapiens have domesticated dogs in Kirkuk, Iraq
0.01 First permanent Homo sapiens sapiens settlements
0.01 Homo sapiens sapiens learn to use fire to cast copper and harden pottery
0.006 Writing is developed in Sumeria
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pdf File 4. Earth's History Pics from Regents Exams
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1.18 MB 3/11/2005
gif File batholith.gif
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279.50 Kb 07/26/06
wmv File Cambrian
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1.67 MB 2/13/2006
wmv File Carboniferous
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2.79 MB 2/13/2006
wmv File Cenozoic
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3.88 MB 2/13/2006
wmv File Cretaceous
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4.93 MB 2/13/2006
wmv File Devonian
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2.19 MB 2/13/2006
gif File Dinosaur Extinction: K-T Boundary
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mov File Dinosaurs
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6.06 MB 2/15/2006
jpg File Dinosaur Thermometer
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120.16 Kb 11/22/2005
jpg File Distribution of Fossils in Strata
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697.10 Kb 2/13/2006
mov File Earth's Origins
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1.87 MB 2/20/2006
wmv File Earth's Past?
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3.69 MB 2/13/2006
gif File Embryo Comparisons
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32.47 Kb 6/12/2006
gif File erodedfolds.gif
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176.20 Kb 07/26/06
jpg File ESRT - Geologic History of NY State (.jpg)
by Zach Miller!!!!!!
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1.34 MB 03/23/11
pdf File ESRT - Radioactive Decay
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30.77 Kb 3/28/2006
swf File ESRT - Rock and Fossil Hunting in New York FLASH
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4.09 MB 9/25/2004
jpg File Evolution - Man
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113.59 Kb 10/12/2005
jpg File Evolution - Walking Fish
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87.36 Kb 10/12/2005
mov File Extinction of Species and Cosmic Collisions
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2.06 MB 2/15/2006
mov File Finding Fossils and Preparing Them for Study
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6.90 MB 2/15/2006
gif File folds.eroded.gif
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345.73 Kb 07/26/06
pdf File Geologic Events of NY State (.pdf)
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2.80 MB 11/15/2004
swf File Geologic History: Tectonic Cross-Sections FLASH
Illustrations by Dr. Barbara J. Tewksbury Chair and President of The American Geological Institute (AGI) Department of Geology Hamilton College 198 College Hill Road Clinton, NY 13323 From: GEOLOGY OF NEW YORK: A SIMPLIFIED ACCOUNT Educational Leaflet No. 28; Pages 251-261 New York State Museum/Geological Survey The State Education Department The University of the State of New York Albany, NY 12230 1991
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1.32 MB 11/17/2004
jpg File Geologic Time Scale Model
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189.42 Kb 2/21/2006
jpg File Geologic Time Spiral
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gif File Grand Canyon - Rock Corr. (.gif)
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199.92 Kb 3/20/2006
pdf File Human Tree of Life
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141.35 Kb 3/06/2006
wmv File Jurassic
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3.69 MB 2/13/2006
mov File Neanderthal - Intro
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2.08 MB 2/15/2006
mov File Neanderthal Encounters Cro Magnon
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3.91 MB 2/15/2006
mov File Neanderthal Extinction
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3.63 MB 2/15/2006
wmv File Ordovician
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2.52 MB 2/13/2006
mov File Pangaea: A Giant Supercontinent
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4.98 MB 2/15/2006
mov File Pangaea Splits
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4.88 MB 2/15/2006
wmv File Permian
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3.14 MB 2/13/2006
mov File Permian-Triassic Extinction (.mov)
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3.90 MB 1/17/2006
wmv File Phanerozoic
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934.44 Kb 2/13/2006
wmv File Precambrian
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6.03 MB 2/13/2006
mov File Radioactive Dating (.mov)
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2.29 MB 1/17/2006
swf File Relative Dating of Rocks
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388.07 Kb 2/22/2006
swf File Rock Correlation - Sedona, AZ (.swf)
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172.04 Kb 3/19/2006
swf File Rock Correlation FLASH
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8.94 Kb 9/16/2004
wmv File Silurian
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1.52 MB 2/13/2006
wmv File The Geologic Time Scale
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624.17 Kb 2/13/2006
mov File The Last Ice Age
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4.14 MB 2/15/2006
jpg File The Real Reason Dinosaurs Became Extinct
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43.60 Kb 11/22/2005
swf File Too many gaps to see the big picture? Evolution is just as clear.
An analogy: You buy a newspaper, and show it to your friend.
He looks at an image on the paper, and says, "...there are
spaces between the dots in this; it isn't accurate". You look
at it, and see the (big) picture composed of dots and spaces,
and your mind 'fills in the gaps'. Your friend (and the intelligent
design proponents) see gaps in the fossil record and use the
presence of gaps to refute the big picture, while offering nothing
concrete of their own from which to construct an image.

- Jordan Makower
Educational Consultant
Pegasus Educational Services
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85.65 Kb 11/20/2005
wmv File Triassic
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2.44 MB 2/13/2006
mov File Tyrannosaurus Rex
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3.81 MB 2/15/2006
pdf File US Bedrock Age
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6.58 MB 3/09/2006