Posted by Dr. Paul Bennett on Monday, Dec 21st, 2009.

(These are all the answers. You need to be prepared for the questions)

 Key Idea 1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things. Introduction: Living things are similar to each other yet different from nonliving things. The cell is a basic unit of structure and function of living things (cell theory). For all living things, life activities are accomplished at the cellular level. Human beings are an interactive organization of cells, tissues, organs, and systems. Viruses lack cellular organization. Compare and contrast the parts of plants, animals, and one-celled organisms. Major Understandings:

1.1a Living things are composed of cells. Cells provide structure and carry on major functions to sustain life. Cells are usually microscopic in size.

1.1b The way in which cells function is similar in all living things. Cells grow and divide, producing more cells. Cells take in nutrients, which they use to provide energy for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs.

1.1c Most cells have cell membranes, genetic material, and cytoplasm. Some cells have a cell wall and/or chloroplasts. Many cells have a nucleus.

1.1d Some organisms are single cells; others, including humans, are multicellular.

unicellular examples:ameba

paramecium

euglena

 

multicellular example:

1.1e Cells are organized for more effective functioning in multicellular organisms. Levels of organization for structure and function of a multicellular organism include cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

1.1f Many plants have roots, stems, leaves, and reproductive structures. These organized groups of tissues are responsible for a plant's life activities.

1.1g Multicellular animals often have similar organs and specialized systems for carrying out major life activities.

1.1h Living things are classified by shared characteristics on the cellular and organism level. In classifying organisms, biologists consider details of internal and external structures. Biological classification systems are arranged from general (kingdom) to specific (species).

STANDARD 4: The Living Environment The Living Environment 13 Major Understandings: Explain the functioning of the major human organ systems and their interactions.

 1.2a Each system is composed of organs and tissues which perform specific functions and interact with each other, e.g., digestion, gas exchange, excretion, circulation, locomotion, control, coordination, reproduction, and protection from disease.

1.2b Tissues, organs, and organ systems help to provide all cells with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal.

1.2c The digestive system consists of organs that are responsible for the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food. The breakdown process results in molecules that can be absorbed and transported to cells.

1.2d During respiration, cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food. The respiratory system supplies oxygen and removes carbon dioxide (gas exchange).

1.2e The excretory system functions in the disposal of dissolved waste molecules, the elimination of liquid and gaseous wastes, and the removal of excess heat energy.

 1.2f The circulatory system moves substances to and from cells, where they are needed or produced, responding to changing demands.

1.2g Locomotion, necessary to escape danger, obtain food and shelter, and reproduce, is accomplished by the interaction of the skeletal and muscular systems, and coordinated by the nervous system.

 

 1.2h The nervous and endocrine systems interact to control and coordinate the body's responses to changes in the environment, and to regulate growth, development, and reproduction. Hormones are chemicals produced by the endocrine system; hormones regulate many body functions.

 

1.2i The male and female reproductive systems are responsible for producing sex cells necessary for the production of offspring.

 

1.2j Disease breaks down the structures or functions of an organism. Some diseases are the result of failures of the system. Other diseases are the result of damage by infection from other organisms (germ theory). Specialized cells protect the body from infectious disease. The chemicals they produce identify and destroy microbes that enter the body. '

14 The Living Environment

Key Idea 2:Organisms inherit genetic information in a variety of ways that result in continuity of structure and function between parents and offspring. Introduction: Every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits. This information is found in the genes of cells. As organisms reproduce, these instructions are passed from one generation to the next. Describe sexual and asexual mechanisms for passing genetic materials from generation to generation. Major Understandings:

2.1a Hereditary information is contained in genes. Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells.

2.1b Each gene carries a single unit of information. A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or by many pairs of genes. A human cell contains thousands of different genes.

2.1c Each human cell contains a copy of all the genes needed to produce a human being.

2.1d In asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent. Asexually produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent.

 

2.1e In sexual reproduction typically half of the genes come from each parent. Sexually produced offspring are not identical to either parent. Major Understandings:Describe simple mechanisms related to the inheritance of some physical traits in offspring.

 

2.2a In all organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation.

 2.2b Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and recessiveness.

 2.2c The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance. Some models of prediction are pedigree charts and Punnett squares.

 

The Living Environment 15

 Key Idea 3:Individual organisms and species change over time. Introduction: Evolution is the change in a species over time. Millions of diverse species are alive today. Generally this diversity of species developed through gradual processes of change occurring over many generations. Species acquire many of their unique characteristics through biological adaptation, which involves the selection of naturally occurring variations in populations (natural selection). Biological adaptations are differences in structures, behaviors, or physiology that enhance survival and reproductive success in a particular environment. Describe sources of variation in organisms and their structures and relate the variations to survival. Major Understandings:

3.1a The processes of sexual reproduction and mutation have given rise to a variety of traits within a species.

 3.1b Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms with a particular trait. Small differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants are very different from their ancestors. Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely to survive and have offspring than individuals without those traits.

3.1c Human activities such as selective breeding and advances in genetic engineering may affect the variations of species. Major Understandings: Describe factors responsible for competition within species and the significance of that competition.

3.2a In all environments, organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources.

3.2b Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the adaptive characteristics of a species are insufficient to permit its survival. Extinction of species is common. Fossils are evidence that a great variety of species existed in the past.

3.2c Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long history of changing lifeforms whose remains are found in the rocks. Recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species.

 

3.2d Although the time needed for change in a species is usually great, some species of insects and bacteria have undergone significant change in just a few years.

16 The Living Environment

Key Idea 4:The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development. Introduction: The survival of a species depends on the ability of a living organism to produce offspring. Living things go through a life cycle involving both reproductive and developmental stages. Development follows an orderly sequence of events. Observe and describe the variations in reproductive patterns of organisms, including asexual and sexual reproduction. Major Understandings:

4.1a Some organisms reproduce asexually. Other organisms reproduce sexually. Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.

 4.1b There are many methods of asexual reproduction, including division of a cell into two cells, or separation of part of an animal or plant from the parent, resulting in the growth of another individual.

4.1c Methods of sexual reproduction depend upon the species. All methods involve the merging of sex cells to begin the development of a new individual. In many species, including plants and humans, eggs and sperm are produced.

4.1d Fertilization and/or development in organisms may be internal or external. Explain the role of sperm and egg cells in sexual reproduction. Major Understandings:

4.2a The male sex cell is the sperm. The female sex cell is the egg. The fertilization of an egg by a sperm results in a fertilized egg.

4.2b In sexual reproduction, sperm and egg each carry one-half of the genetic information for the new individual. Therefore, the fertilized egg contains genetic information from each parent. Major Understandings: Observe and describe developmental patterns in selected plants and animals (e.g., insects, frogs, humans, seed-bearing plants).

4.3a Multicellular organisms exhibit complex changes in development, which begin after fertilization. The fertilized egg undergoes numerous cellular divisions that will result in a multicellular organism, with each cell having identical genetic information.

 4.3b In humans, the fertilized egg grows into tissue which develops into organs and organ systems before birth.

 4.3c Various body structures and functions change as an organism goes through its life cycle.

The Living Environment 17

 4.3d Patterns of development vary among animals. In some species the young resemble the adult, while in others they do not. Some insects and amphibians undergo metamorphosis as they mature.

4.3e Patterns of development vary among plants. In seed-bearing plants, seeds contain stored food for early development. Their later development into adulthood is characterized by varying patterns of growth from species to species.

4.3f As an individual organism ages, various body structures and functions change. Major Understandings: Observe and describe cell division at the microscopic level and its macroscopic effects.

4.4a In multicellular organisms, cell division is responsible for growth, maintenance, and repair. In some one-celled organisms, cell division is a method of asexual reproduction.

4.4b In one type of cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and then separated into two identical and complete sets to be passed to each of the two resulting cells. In this type of cell division, the hereditary information is identical in all the cells that result.

4.4c Another type of cell division accounts for the production of egg and sperm cells in sexually reproducing organisms. The eggs and sperm resulting from this type of cell division contain one-half of the hereditary information.

 4.4d Cancers are a result of abnormal cell division. Key Idea 5:Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life. Introduction: All organisms must be able to obtain and use resources, grow, reproduce, and maintain stable internal conditions while living in a constantly changing external environment. Organisms respond to internal or environmental stimuli. Major Understandings: Compare the way a variety of living specimens carry out basic life functions and maintain dynamic equilibrium.

5.1a Animals and plants have a great variety of body plans and internal structures that contribute to their ability to maintain a balanced condition.

5.1b An organism's overall body plan and its environment determine the way that the organism carries out the life processes.

5.1c All organisms require energy to survive. The amount of energy needed and the method for obtaining this energy vary among cells. Some cells use oxygen to release the energy stored in food.

5.1d The methods for obtaining nutrients vary among organisms. Producers, such as green plants, use light energy to make their food. Consumers, such as animals, take in energy-rich foods.

 5.1e Herbivores obtain energy from plants. Carnivores obtain energy from animals. Omnivores obtain energy from both plants and animals. Decomposers, such as bacteria and fungi, obtain energy by consuming wastes and/or dead organisms.

5.1f Regulation of an organism's internal environment involves sensing the internal environment and changing physiological activities to keep conditions within the range required for survival. Regulation includes a variety of nervous and hormonal feedback systems.

5.1g The survival of an organism depends on its ability to sense and respond to its external environment. Major Understandings: Describe the importance of major nutrients, vitamins, and minerals in maintaining health and promoting growth, and explain the need for a constant input of energy for living organisms.

 5.2a Food provides molecules that serve as fuel and building material for all organisms. All living things, including plants, must release energy from their food, using it to carry on their life processes.

5.2b Foods contain a variety of substances, which include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, proteins, minerals, and water. Each substance is vital to the survival of the organism.

5.2c Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism. Metabolism can be influenced by hormones, exercise, diet, and aging.

5.2d Energy in foods is measured in Calories. The total caloric value of each type of food varies. The number of Calories a person requires varies from person to person.

 5.2e In order to maintain a balanced state, all organisms have a minimum daily intake of each type of nutrient based on species, size, age, sex, activity, etc. An imbalance in any of the nutrients might result in weight gain, weight loss, or a diseased state.

5.2f Contraction of infectious disease, and personal behaviors such as use of toxic substances and some dietary habits, may interfere with one's dynamic equilibrium. During pregnancy these conditions may also affect the development of the child. Some effects of these conditions are immediate; others may not appear for many years.

The Living Environment 19

 Key Idea 6:Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment. Introduction: An environmentally aware citizen should have an understanding of the natural world. All organisms interact with one another and are dependent upon their physical environment. Energy and matter flow from one organism to another. Matter is recycled in ecosystems. Energy enters ecosystems as sunlight, and is eventually lost from the community to the environment, mostly as heat. Major Understandings: Describe the flow of energy and matter through food chains and food webs.

 

 

 6.1a Energy flows through ecosystems in one direction, usually from the Sun, through producers to consumers and then to decomposers. This process may be visualized with food chains or energy pyramids.

6.1b Food webs identify feeding relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

6.1c Matter is transferred from one organism to another and between organisms and their physical environment. Water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen are examples of substances cycled between the living and nonliving environment.

Major Understandings: Provide evidence that green plants make food and explain the significance of this process to other organisms.

6.2a Photosynthesis is carried on by green plants and other organisms containing chlorophyll. In this process, the Sun's energy is converted into and stored as chemical energy in the form of a sugar. The quantity of sugar molecules increases in green plants during photosynthesis in the presence of sunlight.

6.2b The major source of atmospheric oxygen is photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and oxygen is released during photosynthesis.

6.2c Green plants are the producers of food which is used directly or indirectly by consumers.

20 The Living Environment Key Idea 7

Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environment. Introduction: The number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on the resources available and physical factors: quantity of light, air, and water; range of temperatures; soil composition. To ensure the survival of our planet, people have a responsibility to consider the impact of their actions on the environment. Describe how living things, including humans, depend upon the living and nonliving environment for their survival. Major Understandings:

 7.1a A population consists of all individuals of a species that are found together at a given place and time. Populations living in one place form a community. The community and the physical factors with which it interacts compose an ecosystem.

7.1b Given adequate resources and no disease or predators, populations (including humans) increase. Lack of resources, habitat destruction, and other factors such as predation and climate limit the growth of certain populations in the ecosystem.

 7.1c In all environments, organisms interact with one another in many ways. Relationships among organisms may be competitive, harmful, or beneficial. Some species have adapted to be dependent upon each other with the result that neither could survive without the other.

 7.1d Some microorganisms are essential to the survival of other living things.

7.1e The environment may contain dangerous levels of substances (pollutants) that are harmful to organisms. Therefore, the good health of environments and individuals requires the monitoring of soil, air, and water, and taking steps to keep them safe.

Major Understandings: Describe the effects of environmental changes on humans and other populations.

 7.2a In ecosystems, balance is the result of interactions between community members and their environment.

 7.2b The environment may be altered through the activities of organisms. Alterations are sometimes abrupt. Some species may replace others over time, resulting in long-term gradual changes (ecological succession).

7.2c Overpopulation by any species impacts the environment due to the increased use of resources. Human activities can bring about environmental degradation through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, waste disposal, etc.

7.2d Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted in major pollution of air, water, and soil. Pollution has cumulative ecological effects such as acid rain, global warming, or ozone depletion. The survival of living things on our planet depends on the conservation and protection of Earth's resources.

The Physical Setting 21

Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

Key Idea 1:The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

Introduction: The universe is comprised of a wide array of objects, a few of which can be seen by the unaided eye. Others can only be observed with scientific instruments. These celestial objects, distinct from Earth, are in motion relative to Earth and each other. Measurements of these motions vary with the perspective of the observer. Cyclical changes on Earth are caused by interactions among objects in the universe. Major Understandings: Explain daily, monthly, and seasonal changes on Earth.

1.1a Earth's Sun is an average-sized star. The Sun is more than a million times greater in volume than Earth.

1.1b Other stars are like the Sun but are so far away that they look like points of light. Distances between stars are vast compared to distances within our solar system.

1.1c The Sun and the planets that revolve around it are the major bodies in the solar system. Other members include comets, moons, and asteroids. Earth's orbit is nearly circular.

1.1d Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and the Moon in orbit around the Earth.

1.1e Most objects in the solar system have a regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as a day, a year, phases of the Moon, eclipses, tides, meteor showers, and comets.

1.1f The latitude/longitude coordinate system and our system of time are based on celestial observations.

1.1g Moons are seen by reflected light. Our Moon orbits Earth, while Earth orbits the Sun. The Moon's phases as observed from Earth are the result of seeing different portions of the lighted area of the Moon's surface. The phases repeat in a cyclic pattern in about one month.

1.1h The apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars across the sky can be explained by Earth's rotation and revolution. Earth's rotation causes the length of one day to be approximately 24 hours. This rotation also causes the Sun and Moon to appear to rise along the eastern horizon and to set along the western horizon. Earth's revolution around the Sun defines the length of the year as 365 1/4 days.

1.1i The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation and the revolution of Earth around the Sun cause seasons on Earth. The length of daylight varies depending on latitude and season.

 1.1j The shape of Earth, the other planets, and stars is nearly spherical.

STANDARD 4: The Physical Setting 22

The Physical Setting Key Idea 2:Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land. Introduction: Students should develop an understanding of Earth as a set of closely coupled systems. The concept of systems provides a framework in which students can investigate three major interacting components: lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Processes act within and among the three components on a wide range of time scales to bring about continuous change in Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere.

Major Understandings: Explain how the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and lithosphere (land) interact, evolve, and change.

2.1a Nearly all the atmosphere is confined to a thin shell surrounding Earth. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases, including nitrogen and oxygen with small amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases. The atmosphere is stratified into layers, each having distinct properties. Nearly all weather occurs in the lowest layer of the atmosphere.

2.1b As altitude increases, air pressure decreases.


 

2.1c The rock at Earth's surface forms a nearly continuous shell around Earth called the lithosphere.

2.1d The majority of the lithosphere is covered by a relatively thin layer of water called the hydrosphere.

2.1e Rocks are composed of minerals. Only a few rock-forming minerals make up most of the rocks of Earth. Minerals are identified on the basis of physical properties such as streak, hardness, and reaction to acid.

2.1f Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks. Fossils can be used to study past climates and environments.

 2.1g The dynamic processes that wear away Earth's surface include weathering and erosion.

2.1h The process of weathering breaks down rocks to form sediment. Soil consists of sediment, organic material, water, and air.

 2.1i Erosion is the transport of sediment. Gravity is the driving force behind erosion. Gravity can act directly or through agents such as moving water, wind, and glaciers.

2.1j Water circulates through the atmosphere, lithosphere,  and hydrosphere in what is known as the water cycle.

 T he Physical Setting 23

Major Understandings: Describe volcano and earthquake patterns, the rock cycle, and weather and climate changes.

2.2a The interior of Earth is hot. Heat flow and movement of material within Earth cause sections of Earth's crust to move. This may result in earthquakes, volcanic eruption, and the creation of mountains and ocean basins.

2.2b Analysis of earthquake wave data (vibrational disturbances) leads to the conclusion that there are layers within Earth. These layers of the crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core have distinct properties.

2.2c Folded, tilted, faulted, and displaced rock layers suggest past crustal movement.

2.2d Continents fitting together like puzzle parts and fossil correlations provided initial evidence that continents were once together.

2.2e The Theory of Plate Tectonics explains how the solid lithosphere consists of a series of plates that "float" on the partially molten section of the mantle. Convection cells within the mantle may be the driving force for the movement of the plates.

2.2f Plates may collide, move apart, or slide past one another. Most volcanic activity and mountain building occur at the boundaries of these plates, often resulting in earthquakes.

2.2g Rocks are classified according to their method of formation. The three classes of rocks are sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous. Most rocks show characteristics that give clues to their formation conditions.

2.2h The rock cycle model shows how types of rock or rock material may be transformed from one type of rock to another.

2.2i Weather describes the conditions of the atmosphere at a given location for a short period of time.

 

2.2j Climate is the characteristic weather that prevails from season to season and year to year.

 

2.2k The uneven heating of Earth's surface is the cause of weather.

 2.2l Air masses form when air remains nearly stationary over a large section of Earth's surface and takes on the conditions of temperature and humidity from that location. Weather conditions at a location are determined primarily by temperature, humidity, and pressure of air masses over that location.

2.2m Most local weather condition changes are caused by movement of air masses.

 2.2n The movement of air masses is determined by prevailing winds and upper air currents.

 

2.2o Fronts are boundaries between air masses. Precipitation is likely to occur at these boundaries.

2.2p High-pressure systems generally bring fair weather. Low-pressure systems usually bring cloudy, unstable conditions. The general movement of highs and lows is from west to east across the United States.

24 The Physical Setting

2.2q Hazardous weather conditions include thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, ice storms, and blizzards. Humans can prepare for and respond to these conditions if given sufficient warning.

2.2r Substances enter the atmosphere n aturally a nd from human activity. Some of these substances include dust from volcanic eruptions and greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These substances can affect weather, climate, and living things.

Key Idea 3:Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity. Introduction: Objects in the universe are composed of matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter is classified as a substance or a mixture of substances. Knowledge of the structure of matter is essential to student's understanding of the living and physical environments. Matter is composed of elements which are made of small particles called atoms. All living and nonliving material is composed of these elements or combinations of these elements. Major Understandings: Observe and describe properties of materials, such as density, conductivity, and solubility.

3.1a Substances have characteristic properties. Some of these properties include color, odor, phase at room temperature, density, solubility, heat and electrical conductivity, hardness, and boiling and freezing points.

3.1b Solubility can be affected by the nature of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure. The rate of solution can be affected by the size of the particles, stirring, temperature, and the amount of solute already dissolved.

3.1c The motion of particles helps to explain the phases (states) of matter as well as changes from one phase to another. The phase in which matter exists depends on the attractive forces among its particles.

 

 3.1d Gases have neither a determined shape nor a definite volume. Gases assume the shape and volume of a closed container.

3.1e A liquid has definite volume, but takes the shape of a container.

3.1f A solid has definite shape and volume. Particles resist a change in position.

3.1g Characteristic properties can be used to identify different materials, and separate a mixture of substances into its components. For example, iron can be removed from a mixture by means of a magnet. An insoluble substance can be separated from a soluble substance by such processes as filtration, settling, and evaporation.

3.1h Density can be described as the amount of matter that is in a given amount of space. If two objects have equal volume, but one has more mass, the one with more mass is denser.

Density = mass ÷ volume

3.1i Buoyancy is determined by comparative densities.

The Physical Setting 25 Major Understandings: Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.

3.2a During a physical change a substance keeps its chemical composition and properties.

Examples of physical changes include freezing, melting, condensation, boiling, evaporation, tearing, and crushing.

3.2b Mixtures are physical combinations of materials and can be separated by physical means.

3.2c During a chemical change, substances react in characteristic ways to form new substances with different physical and chemical properties.

Examples of chemical changes include burning of wood, cooking of an egg, rusting of iron, and souring of milk.

3.2d Substances are often placed in categories if they react in similar ways. Examples include metals, nonmetals, and noble gases.

3.2e The Law of Conservation of Mass states that during an ordinary chemical reaction matter cannot be created or destroyed. In chemical reactions, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products. Major Understandings: Develop mental models to explain common chemical reactions and changes in states of matter.

3.3a All matter is made up of atoms. Atoms are far too small to see with a light microscope.

 3.3b Atoms and molecules are perpetually in motion. The greater the temperature, the greater the motion.

 3.3c Atoms may join together in well-defined molecules or may be arranged in regular geometric patterns.

3.3d Interactions among atoms and/or molecules result in chemical reactions.

3.3e The atoms of any one element are different from the atoms of other elements.

3.3f There are more than 100 elements. Elements combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that account for all living and nonliving substances. Few elements are found in their pure form.

3.3g The periodic table is one useful model for classifying elements. The periodic table can be used to predict properties of elements (metals, nonmetals, noble gases).

26 The Physical Setting

Key Idea 4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved. Introduction: An underlying principle of all energy use is the Law of Conservation of Energy. Simply stated, energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can be transformed, one form to another. These transformations produce heat energy. Heat is a calculated value which includes the temperature of the material, the mass of the material, and the type of the material. Temperature is a direct measurement of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of material. It should be noted that temperature is not a measurement of heat. Major Understandings:Describe the sources and identify the transformations of energy observed in everyday life.

4.1a The Sun is a major source of energy for Earth. Other sources of energy include nuclear and geothermal energy.

4.1b Fossil fuels contain stored solar energy and are considered nonrenewable resources. They are a major source of energy in the United States. Solar energy, wind, moving water, and biomass are some examples of renewable energy resources.

 

4.1c Most activities in everyday life involve one form of energy being transformed into another. For example, the chemical energy in gasoline is transformed into mechanical energy in an automobile engine. Energy, in the form of heat, is almost always one of the products of energy transformations.

4.1d Different forms of energy include heat, light, electrical, mechanical, sound, nuclear, and chemical. Energy is transformed in many ways.

 4.1e Energy can be considered to be either kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion, or potential energy, which depends on relative position. Major Understandings: Observe and describe heating and cooling events.

 4.2a Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.

 4.2b Heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms and/or molecules (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection).

4.2c During a phase change, heat energy is absorbed or released. Energy is absorbed when a solid changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a gas. Energy is released when a gas changes to a liquid and when a liquid changes to a solid.

4.2d Most substances expand when heated and contract when cooled. Water is an exception, expanding when changing to ice.

4.2e Temperature affects the solubility of some substances in wa